Virtual Tourism

Virtual tourism, google maps mashup, google video

Tulum, Mexico


Tulum (sometimes rendered as Tuluum) is a Pre-Columbian walled city of the Maya civilization located on the Caribbean Sea coast of the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico. It was the major port for Coba along with Tancah and Xel-Ha. There is also a modern town of the same name nearby, often called Tulum Pueblo.

The Maya site may have been formerly also known by the name Zama, or the city of Dawn. Tulum is also the Mayan word for fence,trench or wall and the walls surrounding the site allowed Tulum fort to serve as a defense against an invasion. From the numerous depictions in murals and other works around the site, Tulum appears to have been an important site for the worship of the Descending God.

While an inscription dated 564 has been found at the site, most of the structures now visible were built in the Post-Classic Era, between about 1200 and 1450. The city remained occupied through the early years of the Spanish conquest of Yucatan, but was abandoned in by the end of the 16th century. Local Maya continued to visit the temples to burn incense and pray until the late 20th century, when tourists visiting the site became too numerous.

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Malbork Castle, Poland


Malbork Castle (German: Ordensburg Marienburg) was built by the Teutonic Order as Ordensburg and named Marienburg (literally "Mary's Castle"). The city which grew around it was also named Marienburg, now called Malbork.

It is a classic example of a medieval fortress; it is the world’s largest brick castle and one of the most impressive of its kind in Europe. The castle and its museum are listed as UNESCO's World Heritage Sites.

In the early 13th century the Teutonic Knights launched its first crusades to the territories around the central stretch of the river Nogat in order to convert the local Prussian inhabitants to Christianity.

At the beginning of the 1280s the Teutonic Knights started building a castle here which they referred to as Marienburg (St. Mary's Stronghold). In just under 30 years they raised a quadrangular convent building complete with chapel, chapter house, dormitory, refectory, an enclosed courtyard and a bailey situated to the north. A long, high gallery was built leading from the south-west corner to the Danske or sewage-tower, which was also used for defence purposes.

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Palacio de la Moneda, Santiago


The Palacio de La Moneda (Spanish "The Mint Palace"), is the present seat of the President of the Republic of Chile. It is one of the most notable buildings constructed by the Spanish crown in its American colonies. It is located at the heart of the capital Santiago.

The Palacio de La Moneda, originally a colonial mint (moneda means coin), was designed by Italian architect Joaquín Toesca. Construction began in 1784 and was opened in 1805, while still under construction.

In June, 1845 during president Manuel Bulnes's administration, it became the seat of government and presidential residence. In 1930, a public square was built in front of the palace, the Plaza de la Constitución (Constitution Square). It ceased to be the presidential residence after the presidency of Gabriel González Videla.

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Tower Bridge, Sacramento


The Tower Bridge is a vertical lift bridge located in Sacramento, California that crosses the Sacramento River in the U.S. state of California. It was previously a part of U.S. Highway 40 until all of the highway west of Salt Lake City was decommissioned. It is now part of California State Highway 275.

In March 1926, construction was completed on the M Street Bridge in Sacramento. Seven years later, in 1933, the city realized that it needed a better crossing over the Sacramento River in case of war, and the existing bridge was highly inadequate to handle heavy traffic. On December 22, 1933, the State of California, Sacramento County, and Sacramento Northern Electric Railroad held a conference to plan the new bridge. It was to be 52 feet (16 m) wide, with four lanes for cars, and one large center lane for a railroad. On December 15, 1935, then-governor Frank Merriam dedicated the bridge.

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Wacker Drive, Chicago


Wacker Drive is a major street in Chicago, Illinois, United States, running along the downtown side of the Chicago River. The vast majority of it is double-decked; the upper level is intended for local traffic, and the lower level for through traffic and trucks servicing buildings on the road (and originally a dock).

It is sometimes cited as a precursor to the modern freeway, though when built the idea was that pleasure vehicles would use the upper level.

In the video you can see the construction of the new Trump Tower.

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Alcazar, Sevilla


The Alcazar of Sevilla (Spanish "Reales Alcczares de Sevilla" ) is a royal palace in Seville, Spain. Originally a Moorish fort, the Alcazar has been expanded several times. The Almohades were the first to build a palace, called Al-Muwarak, on the site. Most of the modern Alcázar was built over Moorish ruins for King Peter I of Castile (also known as Pedro the Cruel) with construction beginning in 1364.

Pedro used Moorish workers to build his palace giving it a distinctly Islamic design. The palace is one of the best remaining examples of mudejar architecture, a style under Christian rule in Spain but using Islamic architectural influence. Subsequent monarchs have added their own additions to the Alcazar. Charles V's addition of gothic elements contrast with the dominant Islamic style.

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Plaza de Espana, Sevilla


The Plaza de Espana is one of Seville's most easily recognised buildings and the epitome of the Moorish Revival in Spanish architecture. In 1929 Seville hosted the Spanish-American Exhibition and numerous buildings were constructed for the exhibition in Maria Luisa Park, among them the Plaza designed by Aníbal Gonzalez. On the Park's edge was built the current Plaza de Espana to showcase Spain's industry and technology exhibits.

The Plaza is a huge 1/2 circle with buildings continually running around the edge accessible over the moat by numerous beautiful bridges . In the centre is a large fountain. Today the plaza mainly consists of Government buildings, but the beauty remains. A popular way to view the exhibition is by renting out a rowing boat and drifting around the moat. By the walls of the Plaza are many tiled alcoves, each representing a different province of Spain. Tourists can have their photo taken by their own home province.

Plaza de Espana was used as a setting for Naboo in Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones, though it was digitally modified.

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Olympia, Greece


Olympia, a sanctuary of ancient Greece in Elis, is known for having been the site of the Olympic Games in classical times, comparable in importance to the Pythian Games held in Delphi. Both games were held every olympiad (i.e. every four years), the Olympic Games dating back possibly further than 776 BC. In 394 emperor Theodosius I, or possibly his grandson Theodosius II in 435, abolished them because they were reminiscent of paganism.

The sanctuary itself consists of an unordered arrangement of various buildings. To the north of the sanctuary can be found the prytaneion and the Philippeion, as well as the array of treasuries representing the various city states. The metroon lies to the south of these treasuries, with the Echo Stoa to the East. To the south of the sanctuary is the South Stoa and the Bouleuterion, whereas the West side houses the palaistra, the workshop of Pheidias, the Gymnasion and the Leonidaion. Enclosed within the temenos are the temples of Hera and Zeus, the Pelopion and the area of the altar, where the sacrifices were made. The hippodrome and later stadium were also to the East.

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Bank of America Building, Miami


The Bank of America Tower (formerly the CenTrust Tower) is a 47-story, landmark office tower in Miami, Florida. Built for CenTrust Savings & Loan in 1987, the 47-story building is the third highest skyscraper in Miami and in Florida at a height of 625 feet (191 m) and is known for its elaborate night-time illuminations and its dramatic three glass tiers.

Designed by the Pei Cobb Freed & Partners architectural firm, the tower consists of two separate structures: A 11-story parking garage owned by the city and the 37-story office tower built upon the air rights of the garage. Preliminary planning for the tower began in February 1980; construction on the garage began by November. The garage was completed in February 1983 and the tower began construction a year later. In August 1984, while the tower was under construction, a 5-alarm fire began on the ninth floor; construction was subsequently delayed for several weeks. On December 15, 1985, the tower was lit for the first time in Miami Dolphins aqua and snowflakes.

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Fountain Square, Cincinnati


The centrepiece of downtown, the Tyler Davidson Fountain has come to symbolize the city as a whole. Cast at the Royal Bavarian Foundry in Munich, the elaborate bronze fountain was donated to the city in 1871 by Henry Probasco. The 43-foot-high fountain contains thirteen allegorical figures and four bas-reliefs depicting the importance of water to our lives. The central female figure, the Genius of Water, stands with arms outstretched showering water from the palms of her hands. Nuremberg sculptor August von Kreling (1819-1876) designed the fountain in the 1840s for King Ludwig I of Bavaria, but it was not executed until 1870 when Henry Probasco saw the sketches and commissioned the piece as a suitable monument for the city, as well as a memorial to his deceased brother-in-law and business partner Tyler Davidson.

The fountain was moved 30 feet in the 1960s and turned 180 degrees to face west. The fountain was reconditioned for its 100th anniversary by sculptor Eleftherios Karkadoulias and rededicated in 1971.

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Anitkabir, Ankara


Anitkabir is the mausoleum of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, the leader of Turkish War of Independence and the founder and first president of the Republic of Turkey. It is located in Ankara, Anittepe quarter. It is designed by architects Professor Emin Onat and Assistant Professor Orhan Arda, who won the competition held by the Turkish Government in 1941 for a "monumental mausoleum" for Ataturk, out of a total of 45 international proposals.

The site is also the final resting place of Ismet Inonu, the second President of Turkey, who was interred there after he died in 1973. His tomb faces the Ataturk Mausoleum, on the opposite side of the Ceremonial Ground.

The hill chosen for Anitkabir was Rasattepe (Observation Hill), which was a central location in Ankara and had an unobstructed, general view of the city. Archeological excavations unearthed artifacts belonging to Phrygian civilization, and those were carefully excavated and put on display in the museum of Anatolian Civilizations, in Ankara.

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World's Tallest Skyscrapers

Below are the world's tallest skscrapers according to Wikipedia. Most of the tallest structures in the world are guyed broadcasting towers. The structures on this list exclude guyed towers and are sorted by the height to the architectual top.

1. Taipei 101, Taiwan
2. Petronas Towers, Malaysia
3. Sears Tower, USA
4. Jin Mao Building, China
5. IFC, Hong Kong

Westerkerk, Amsterdam


The Westerkerk is a church in Amsterdam, finished in 1638 after a design by Hendrick de Keyser.

The crown topping the spire is the Emperor's Crown of Maximilian I.

Dutch painter Rembrandt van Rijn lies buried there in an unknown grave.

The church is at the bank of the Prinsengracht canal.

It is located close to "The Achterhuis" where diarist Anne Frank, her family and others hid from Nazi persecution for two years during World War II. The Westerkerk is mentioned frequently in her diary - its clock tower could be seen from the attic of "The Achterhuis" and Frank described the chiming of the clock as a source of comfort. A memorial statue of Frank is located outside the church.

Near the Anne Frank memorial, is the Homomonument, a memorial for men and women persecuted for their homosexuality.

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Novy Most, Bratislava


The Novy Most (New Bridge; formerly Most SNP - Bridge of the Slovak National Uprising) in Bratislava is a road bridge over the Danube in the capital of Slovakia.

It was built between 1967 and 1972 and projected by A. Tesar, J. Lacko, and I. Slamen. Officially opened on August 26, 1972. It is an asymmetrical cable-stayed bridge with a main span length of 303 metres. Its steel construction hangs on steel ropes, which are mounted on the Petrzalka river side at two pillars. The total length of the bridge is 430.8 metres, the width is 21 metres and the weight 7537 tonnes.

A special attraction is a flying saucer-like restaurant, called (since 2005) "UFO" , on an 84.6 metre pylon of the bridge. One can reach the restaurant using an elevator situated in the left pillar. The restaurant offers a good view over Bratislava. In the right pillar there is an emergency staircase with 430 stairs.

The Novy Most has lanes for cars, bikes and pedestrians.

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Euromast, Rotterdam


The Euromast is a tower in Rotterdam constructed between 1958 and 1960, designed by H.A. Maaskant. It was specially built for the 1960 Floriade. It is a concrete building with an internal diameter of 9m and a wall thickness of 30cm. For stability is it built on a concrete block of 1,900,000 kg so that the centre of gravity is below ground. It has a "crow's nest" observation platform 96 metres above-ground and a restaurant. Originally 101 metres in height it was the tallest building in Rotterdam. It lost this position for a while, but regained it when the "Space Tower" was added to the top of the building in 1970, giving an additional 85 metres. The Euromast is a member of the World Federation of Great Towers.

The World Federation of Great Towers (WFGT) is an association of tall towers and skyscrapers from around the world. It was created in 1989. The key criterion for inclusion in the WFGT is that the building in question must have a public observation deck.

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The Ashes


The Ashes is the name commonly given to the Test cricket contest played between England and Australia - it is one of cricket's fiercest and most celebrated rivalries and the oldest in international cricket.

The series is named after a satirical obituary published in The Sporting Times in 1882 following the match at The Oval, in which Australia beat England in England for the first time. The obituary stated that English cricket had died, and the body will be cremated and the ashes taken to Australia.

England, the current holders, now have to defend the Ashes in Australia. The accompanying map shows all of the grounds in the series on Google Maps and a short video of each.

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Strasbourg Cathedral


The Cathedrale Notre-Dame (German: Strassburger Munster, English: Our Lady's Cathedral) is a Roman-Catholic cathedral in Strasbourg, France. It is widely considered to be among the finest examples of "high", or late, gothic architecture. Erwin von Steinbach is credited for major contributions from 1277 to his death in 1318.

At 142 metres, it was the world's tallest building from 1625 to 1847. It remained the tallest church in the world until 1880, when it was surpassed firstly by Cologne Cathedral and then the 161 metre Ulm Munster. Today it is the fourth-tallest church in the world.

Described by Victor Hugo as a "gigantic and delicate marvel", the cathedral's splendour is visible far across the plains of Alsace and can be seen from as far off as the Vosges mountains or the Black Forest on the other side of the Rhine.

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Plaza Mayor, Madrid


The Plaza Mayor is a central plaza in the city of Madrid, Spain. The Plaza Mayor is only a few blocks away from another famous plaza, the Puerta del Sol. The Plaza Mayor is rectangular in shape, 129 by 94 meters, and is surrounded by three-floored residential buildings with 237 balconies. It has a total of nine entranceways. The Plaza Mayor was built during the Austrian period. The Casa de la Panaderia, serving municipal and cultural functions, dominates the Plaza Mayor

The origins of the Plaza go back to 1581 when Philip II of Spain asked Juan de Herrera, a renowned Renaissance architect, to devise a plan to remodel the busy and chaotic area of the old Plaza del Arrabal. Juan de Herrera was the architect who designed the first project in 1581 to remodel the old Plaza del Arrabal but the construction didn't start until 1617, during the Philip III of Spain's reign. The king asked Juan Gomez de Mora to continue with the project, and he finished the porticoes in 1619. Nevertheless, the Plaza Mayor as we know it today is the work of the architect Juan de Villanueva who was entrusted with its reconstruction in 1790 after a spate of big fires. Juan de Bolonia's statue of Philip III on horseback in the center of the square dates back to 1616.

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Ruins of St Paul, Macau


The Cathedral of Saint Paul, informally known as Saint Paul's Cathedral was a 16th-century cathedral in Macau, China, dedicated to Saint Paul the apostle of Jesus. Today, its ruins are arguably the Macau Region's most famous tourist site.

Built from 1582 to 1602 by the Jesuits, the Cathedral was the largest Catholic church in Asia at the time, and the royalty of Europe vied with each other to bestow upon the Cathedral the best gifts. With the decline in importance of Macau, which was overtaken as the main port for the Pearl River Delta by Hong Kong, the Cathedral's fortune's similarly ebbed, and it was destroyed by a fire during a typhoon in 1835. The Fortaleza do Monte overlooks the ruin.

The ruins now consist of the southern stone facade - intricately carved by Japanese monks - and the crypts of the Jesuits who established and maintained the Cathedral. The facade sits on a small hill, with 66 stone steps leading to the facade. The carvings include Jesuit images with Oriental themes, including one of a woman stepping on a seven-headed hydra, described by Chinese characters as 'the Holy Mother tramples the heads of the dragon'. Other engravings include those of the founders of the Jesuit Order, the conquest of Death by Jesus, and others, all topped by a dove with wings outstretched.

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Sensoji Temple, Tokyo


Senso-ji is an ancient Buddhist temple located in Asakusa, Taito, Tokyo. It is Tokyo's oldest temple, and one of its most significant. Formerly associated with the Tendai sect, it became independent after World War II. Adjacent to the temple is a Shinto shrine, the Asakusa Jinja.

Senso-ji is the focus of Tokyo's largest and most popular matsuri (Shinto festival). This takes place over 3 to 4 days in late spring, and sees the surrounding streets closed to traffic from dawn until late evening.

Dominating the entrance to the temple is the kaminari-mon or "Thunder Gate". This imposing Buddhist structure features a massive paper lantern dramatically painted in vivid red-and-black tones to suggest thunderclouds and lightning. Within the precincts stand a stately five-story pagoda and the main hall, devoted to Kannon Bosatsu.

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Gateway of India, Mumbai


The Gateway of India is a monument located in Mumbai, India. Located on the waterfront in South Mumbai, the Gateway is a basalt arch 26 metres high. The Gateway is traditionally the first thing visitors arriving by boat would see of Bombay. Behind the Gateway steps lead down to the waterfront, where boat trips can be had to locations such as Elephanta Island.

The Gateway is built from yellow basalt and reinforced concrete. While Indo-Saracenic in architectural style, elements are derived from the Muslim architectural styles of 16th century Gujarat. The central dome is 15 metres in diameter and 26 metres above ground at its highest point. The whole harbour front was realigned in order to come in line with a planned esplanade which would sweep down to the centre of the town. The cost of the construction was Rs. 21 lakhs, borne mainly by the Government of India. For lack of funds, the approach road was never built, and so the Gateway stands at an angle to the road leading up to it.

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Hiroshima Castle


Hiroshima Castle (Hiroshima-jo), sometimes called Carp Castle is a castle in Hiroshima, Japan which was the home of the daimyo (feudal lord) of the Hiroshima han (fief). Originally constructed in the 1590s, the castle was destroyed in the atomic bombing in 1945. It was rebuilt in 1958, a replica of the original which now serves as a museum of Hiroshima's history prior to World War II.

Mori Terumoto, one of Toyotomi Hideyoshi's council of five regents, established Hiroshima castle in 1589 at the delta of the Otagawa river. There was no Hiroshima city or town at the time, and the area was called Gokamura, meaning 'five villages.' Beginning in 1591, Mori governed nine provinces from this castle, including much of what is now Shimane, Yamaguchi, Tottori, Okayama and Hiroshima Prefectures.

When construction on the castle began, Gokamura was renamed Hiroshima, as a more impressive name was called for. "Hiro" was taken from Oeno Hiromoto, an ancestor of the Mori family, and "Shima" was taken from Fukushima Motonaga who helped Mori Terumoto choose the castle site. Some accounts state that the name 'Hiroshima', meaning literally 'wide island', comes from the existence of several large islands in the delta of the Otagawa, near the castle's site.

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Castelo de Sao Jorge, Lisbon


The Castle of Sao Jorge (English: Castle of Saint George) is the Castle of Lisbon, the capital city of Portugal, and is located in the highest hill of the historic centre of the city. It is one of the main historical and tourist sites of the city.

Although the first fortifications on the Lisbon hilltop are known to date only from the 2nd century BC, archaeological research has shown that human occupation exists there at least since the 6th century BC, originally from autochthonous Celtic and Iberian tribes (with probable Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian influences), afterwards Roman, Suevi, Visigothic and Moorish.

In the context of the Christian Reconquista the castle and the city of Lisbon were retaken from the Moors by King Afonso Henriques with the help of Northern European crusaders taking part on the Second Crusade. The Siege of Lisbon, which took place in 1147, was the only success of that Crusade. According to a famous legend, the knight Martim Moniz, noting that one of the doors to the castle was opened, prevented the door from closing again with his own body, sacrificing his life but allowing the Christians to enter the castle.

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Monte Alban, Mexico


Monte Alban is a large archaeological site in the state of Oaxaca, Mexico.

The name "Monte Alban" means "White Mountain" in the Spanish language; the Zapotec name was Danipaguache, meaning "Sacred Mountain of Life". The Aztecs knew it as Ocelotepec, or "Jaguar Mountain".

This sacred Mesoamerican city is on an artificially flattened mountain top some 400 meters above the city of Oaxaca.

Monte Alban was built over a period of over 2,000 years, starting about 900 BCE, by the Zapotec people. The early art shows Olmec influence. The most impressive building period was during the Mesoamerican Classic era, from about 550 CE to 1000 CE. About 1300 CE, the Zapotec were driven out of the site and surrounding area by the Mixtec people. The Mixtec made further additions to Monte Alban until they in turn were conquered by the Spanish Conquistadores in 1521, at which time Monte Alban was abandoned.

Guillermo Dupaix investigated the site in the early 19th century. J. M. Garcia published an account of the site in 1859. A. F. Bandelier visited and published further descriptions in the 1890s. The first large-scale archaeological project of the site was done in 1902 by Leopoldo Batres. Eighteen years of more extensive excavations began in 1931 under Alfonso Caso. Despite such detailed work, much of the large site, over 80%, has never been excavated.

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Cheers Pub, Boston


The Bull & Finch Pub is a bar / restaurant located on Beacon Street in Boston, Massachusetts. The Bull & Finch has gained much notoriety from the exterior shots used of it on the show Cheers. Though the exterior shots were used, no interior shots were; and thus the interior of the bar does not resemble the the bar from Cheers at all. More recently its name has been changed from The Bull & Finch to Cheers Beacon Hill.

The pub is opposite Boston Common. Boston Common is Boston, Massachusetts' most famous public park and the oldest city park in the United States, dating as far back as 1634. It is 50 acres in size. The Common is bounded by Tremont St., Park St., Beacon St., Charles St., and Boylston St. A visitors' center for all of Boston is on the Tremont Street side of the park.

Its purpose has changed over the years. Originally it was owned by William Blaxton (often given the modernized spelling "Blackstone") until it was bought from him by the city. It was used as a camp by the British before the Revolutionary War, and was where they left from for the Battle of Lexington and Concord. Up until 1830, it was used for cattle grazing. It was also used for public hangings up until 1817, most of which were from a large oak which was replaced with gallows in 1769. Mary Dyer was hanged there in 1660.

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Ten Places To See Before You Die

Having spent too many hours watching travel videos on Google and YouTube I've been thinking about the ten places I would most like to visit. This is my list. So far I've seen one, so I've got a long way to go.

1. Petra, Jordan
2. Taj Mahal, India
3. Giza Pyramids, Egypt
4. Colosseum, Italy
5. Niagra Falls, USA
6. Sydney Opera House
7. Great Wall of China
8. Eiffel Tower, France
9. Machu Picchu, Peru
10. The Parthenon, Greece

IFC, Hong Kong


The International Finance Centre (IFC) is an integrated commercial development on the waterfront of Hong Kong's Central District.

Also known also as 2IFC and branded as "Two ifc", Two International Finance Centre was completed in 2003. Designed by Cesar Pelli, this 415 m tall building is currently Hong Kong's tallest, with 88 storeys (an extremely lucky number in Cantonese culture) and 22 high-ceiling trading floors. The highrise is designed to accommodate financial firms. For example, the Hong Kong Monetary Authority (HKMA) is located at the 55th floor. It is equipped with state of the art telecommunications, raised floors for flexible cabling management, and nearly column-free floor plans. The building expects to accommodate up to 15,000 people.

It should be noted that, however, the 88 storeys do not comprise of an actual number of 88 storeys. Some of the "taboo floors" like 14 and 24, which sounds like definitely die and Easy to die in Cantonese respectively, are omitted.

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Jin Mao Tower, Shanghai


The Jin Mao Building or Jin Mao Tower ( literally "Gold Luxuriance Building") is an 88-story landmark skyscraper in the Lujiazui area of the Pudong district of Shanghai, People's Republic of China. It contains offices and the Shanghai Grand Hyatt hotel. As of 2005, it is the tallest building in the PRC, the fifth tallest in the world by roof height and the seventh tallest by pinnacle height. Along with the Oriental Pearl Tower, it is a centerpiece of the renowned Pudong skyline. It may be surpassed in 2008 by the Shanghai World Financial Centre.

It was designed by the Chicago office of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill. Its postmodern form, whose complexity rises as it ascends, draws on traditional Chinese architecture such as the tiered pagoda, gently stepping back to create a rhythmic pattern as it rises. Like the Petronas Towers in Malaysia, the building's proportions revolve around the number 8, associated with prosperity in Chinese culture. The 88 floors (93 if the spire floors are counted) are divided into 16 segments, each of which is 1/8th shorter than the 16-story base. The tower is built around an octagon-shaped concrete shear wall core surrounded by 8 exterior composite supercolumns and 8 exterior steel columns. Three sets of 8 two-story high outrigger trusses connect the columns to the core at six of the floors to provide additional support.

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Duquesne Incline, Pittsburgh


The Duquesne Incline is a funicular, or inclined plane, located near Pittsburgh's South Side neighborhood and scaling Mt. Washington. It was completed in 1877.

The Duquesne Incline's original purpose was to take cargo up and down Mt Washington in the late 1800s. It then became available for passenger use to workers on Mt. Washington who tired of walking up footpaths to the top. Inclines were then being built all over Mt. Washington. But as time went on, more roads could be built up Mt. Washington, and most of the other inclines were closed. In the 1940s, only the Monongahela Incline and the Duquesne Incline were left.

In 1962 the incline was closed, apparently for good. Major repairs were needed, and with so few patrons, the incline's private owners did little. But a group of men from the Duquesne Heights neighborhood launched a fund-raiser to help the incline. It was a huge success, and on July 1, 1963 the incline reopened under the auspices of a non-profit organization dedicated to the incline's preservation.

The incline has since been totally refurbished. The cars, built by the J.G. Brill Company of Philadelphia, have been stripped of paint to reveal the wood. An observation deck was added for another view of Pittsburgh, and the Duquesne Incline is now one of the city's most popular tourist attractions.

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Museum Campus, Chicago


In 1998, Chicago officially opened the Museum Campus, a 10-acre (4-hectare) lakefront park surrounding three of the city's main museums: the Adler Planetarium, the Field Museum of Natural History, and the Shedd Aquarium. The Museum Campus was constructed on the southern section of Grant Park. Grant Park is also home to Chicago's other major downtown museum, the Art Institute of Chicago, which is partnered with The School of the Art Institute of Chicago. The Museum of Science and Industry in Chicago, located in the Hyde Park neighborhood, is housed in the only in-place surviving building from the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893.

Navy Pier, a 3000-foot (900 m) pier housing restaurants, shops, museums, exhibition halls, auditoriums, and a 150-foot-tall (45 m) Ferris wheel, is located north of Grant Park on the lakefront.

The Chicago Cultural Center, built in 1897 as Chicago's first permanent public library, now houses the city's Visitor Information Center, galleries, and exhibit halls. The ceiling of Preston Bradley Hall includes a 38-foot (11 m) Tiffany glass dome. The Oriental Institute, part of the University of Chicago, has an extensive collection of ancient Egyptian and Near Eastern archaeological artifacts, while the Freedom Museum is dedicated to exploring and explaining the First Amendment to the United States Constitution. Other museums and galleries in Chicago are the Chicago History Museum, DuSable Museum of African-American History, Mexican Fine Arts Center Museum, Museum of Contemporary Art, and the Peggy Notebaert Nature Museum.

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